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"silicon" Deutsch ÜbersetzungReferenzen und weiterführende Informationen:  Englischer Wikipedia-Artikel „silicon“:  LEO Englisch-Deutsch, Stichwort: „silicon“. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für silicon im Online-Wörterbuch bena-rt.com (Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung für 'silicon' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen.
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Mika Romy Schneider Yvonne Catterfeld Bitte. - "silicon" auf DeutschEnglish We used a red, very high-temperature silicon to do that. Silicon is used as a great deal in today's computers and virtually every electronic device. Germanium can also be used in computers, but silicon is easier to find. There is a lot of silicon on the Earth. At the beach, there is silicon in the form of sand. Sand is a compound of silicon known as silicon dioxide or silica. Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number It is a hard, brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, and is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. Translation for 'silicon' in the free English-Dutch dictionary and many other Dutch translations. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'silicone' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten Aussprache und relevante Diskussionen Kostenloser Vokabeltrainer. Silicon Valley is a region in the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California that serves as a global center for high technology and bena-rt.com corresponds roughly to the geographical Santa Clara Valley. Sie sorgen für den beständigen Bones Staffel 11 Inhalt von Elementen wie Sauerstoff, Kohlenstoff, Silizium und Eisen bis hin zu den schweren Uran-Atomen G. Slowenisch Wörterbücher. Besuchen Sie uns auf: facebook YouTube Instagram.
ab 20:15 Silicon Deutsch im TV und in der Mediathek. - Testen Sie Ihren Wortschatz mit unseren lustigen Bild-Quiz.Karborund um. Retrieved February 21, On August 23,the first ship-to-shore wireless telegraph message to be received in the US was from the San Francisco lightship outside the Golden Gatesignaling the return of the American fleet from the Philippines after their victory in the Spanish—American War Mbti Test English Thus they can be viewed as layers stacked in a certain sequence. However, even greater purity is needed V Die Außerirdischen Besucher semiconductor applications, and this is produced from the reduction of tetrachlorosilane silicon tetrachloride or trichlorosilane.
A January issue of Newsweek magazine featured an article detailing reports of sexism and misogyny in Silicon Valley.
Silicon Valley firms' board of directors are composed of The lawsuit Pao v. Kleiner Perkins was filed in San Francisco County Superior Court by executive Ellen Pao for gender discrimination against her employer, Kleiner Perkins.
On March 27, the jury found in favor of Kleiner Perkins on all counts. Funding for public schools in upscale Silicon Valley communities such as Woodside is often supplemented by grants from private foundations set up for that purpose and funded by local residents.
Schools in less affluent areas such as East Palo Alto must depend on state funding. The following Santa Clara County cities are traditionally considered to be in Silicon Valley in alphabetical order : [ citation needed ].
The geographical boundaries of Silicon Valley have changed over the years. Historically, the term Silicon Valley was treated as synonymous with Santa Clara Valley,    and then its meaning later evolved to refer to Santa Clara County plus adjacent regions in southern San Mateo County and southern Alameda County.
The United States Department of Labor 's Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages QCEW program defined Silicon Valley as the counties of Alameda, Contra Costa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, and Santa Cruz.
In , MIT researchers developed a novel method for measuring which towns are home to startups with higher growth potential and this defines Silicon Valley to center on the municipalities of Menlo Park, Mountain View, Palo Alto, and Sunnyvale.
In , Intelligent Machines Journal changed its name to InfoWorld , and, with offices in Palo Alto , began covering the emergence of the microcomputer industry in the valley.
Local and national media cover Silicon Valley and its companies. CNN, The Wall Street Journal , and Bloomberg News operate Silicon Valley bureaus out of Palo Alto.
Public broadcaster KQED TV and KQED-FM , as well as the Bay Area's local ABC station KGO-TV , operate bureaus in San Jose.
KNTV , NBC 's local Bay Area affiliate "NBC Bay Area", is located in San Jose. Produced from this location is the nationally distributed TV Show "Tech Now" as well as the CNBC Silicon Valley bureau.
San Jose-based media serving Silicon Valley include the San Jose Mercury News daily and the Metro Silicon Valley weekly.
Most of the Bay Area's other major TV stations, newspapers, and media operate in San Francisco or Oakland. Mountain View has a public nonprofit station, KMVT KMVT's shows include Silicon Valley Education News EdNews -Edward Tico Producer.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the high-tech hub of the Bay Area. For the geographical valley, see Santa Clara Valley.
For other uses, see Silicon Valley disambiguation. Region in California, United States. Top to bottom: Downtown San Jose skyline; southward aerial view of Silicon Valley; Stanford University in Stanford.
For Santa Clara Valley history, see Santa Clara Valley. Main articles: Silicon and History of the transistor.
Main article: Invention of the integrated circuit. Main article: Microcomputer revolution. Main article: Internet.
Main article: dot-com bubble. See also: Category:Companies based in Silicon Valley. Adobe Inc. Advanced Micro Devices Agilent Technologies Alphabet Inc.
Apple Inc. Applied Materials Cadence Design Systems Cisco Systems Cypress Semiconductor eBay Electronic Arts Facebook, Inc.
Hewlett Packard Enterprise HP Inc. Intel Intuit Intuitive Surgical Juniper Networks KLA Corporation Lam Research Lockheed Martin Space Maxim Integrated NetApp Netflix Nvidia Oracle Corporation PayPal Salesforce Sanmina Corporation Square, Inc.
Synnex Synopsys Tesla, Inc. Twitter Western Digital Xilinx. Hitachi Data Systems Hitachi Global Storage Technologies IDEO Informatica LinkedIn acquired by Microsoft Logitech LSI acquired by Broadcom Lucasfilm Maxtor acquired by Seagate McAfee acquired by Intel Memorex acquired by Imation and moved to Cerritos, California Mozilla Foundation Move, Inc.
RSA Security acquired by EMC SanDisk acquired by Western Digital SolarCity Sony Mobile Communications Sony Interactive Entertainment SRI International Sun Microsystems acquired by Oracle Corporation SunPower SurveyMonkey Symantec now NortonLifeLock and headquartered in Tempe, Arizona TIBCO Software TiVo TSMC Uber Verifone VeriSign Veritas Technologies split off from Symantec VMware acquired by Dell Technologies Walmart Labs WebEx acquired by Cisco Systems YouTube acquired by Google Yelp, Inc.
Zoom Zynga. Atherton is the most expensive place to live in the United States. Los Altos is the 3rd most expensive zip code in the United States.
Palo Alto is the 5th most educated city  and the 5th most expensive zip code in the United States. Morgan Hill is the 17th most expensive place to live in the United States.
Los Gatos is the 33rd wealthiest city in the United States. Saratoga is the 16th most educated and the 8th wealthiest city in the United States.
See also: Occupational inequality and Sexism in the technology industry. Campbell Cupertino Gilroy Los Altos Los Altos Hills Los Gatos Milpitas Monte Sereno Morgan Hill Mountain View Palo Alto San Jose Santa Clara Saratoga Sunnyvale.
Stanford University , 20 mi 30 km outside of San Jose, is one of the top universities in the world. See also: List of attractions in Silicon Valley.
The City National Civic top and the San Jose Center for the Performing Arts bottom. San Francisco Bay Area portal. See also: the categories Companies based in Silicon Valley , Silicon Valley people , and Tourist attractions in Silicon Valley.
List of attractions in Silicon Valley List of places with "Silicon" names around the world List of research parks around the world List of technology centers around the world Semiconductor industry STEM fields.
The Valley of Heart's Delight: A Silicon Valley Notebook - New York: John S. Retrieved July 28, Silicon Valley, Women, and the California Dream: Gender, Class, and Opportunity in the Twentieth Century.
Stanford: Stanford University Press. Silicon Valley. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. Archived from the original on March 9, Retrieved April 3, Silicon Valley Index.
Archived from the original on September 24, Retrieved September 24, Business Insider. Archived from the original on July 25, Retrieved July 25, Archived from the original on July 26, Retrieved July 26, Computer History Museum.
Archived from the original on October 16, Retrieved October 16, The Rise of the Network Society.
Archived from the original on September 5, Retrieved March 25, Lighthouses of the Pacific Coast. Voyageur Press. Electronics in the West: The First Fifty Years.
National Press Books. Clyde Arbuckle's History of San Jose. San Jose, CA: Memorabilia of San Jose. In Kenney, Martin ed. Understanding Silicon Valley: The Anatomy of an Entrepreneurial Region.
Stanford University. Retrieved March 24, Archived from the original on April 6, Retrieved April 19, January 15, The Atlantic.
Archived from the original on January 15, Retrieved January 15, Making Silicon Valley: Innovation and the Growth of High Tech, — The MIT Press.
Immigrants in Electronics Protest Growing Sweat-Shop Conditions". Archived from the original on March 3, Retrieved February 3, Archived from the original on February 3, American Experience.
WGBH — PBS". Archived from the original on April 17, The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 29, Retrieved April 17, Archived from the original on May 25, Retrieved December 7, In , the physicist William Shockley set up a semiconductor laboratory in Mountain View, partly to be near his mother in Palo Alto.
Archived from the original on January 1, The co-inventor of the transistor and the founder of the valley's first chip company, William Shockley, moved to Palo Alto, Calif.
Stanford Computer Forum. Carolyn Terman. Archived from the original on December 11, Retrieved December 10, Archived from the original on September 1, Retrieved January 8, Archived from the original on April 28, Archived from the original on March 29, Retrieved March 29, Silicon Surfaces and Formation of Interfaces: Basic Science in the Industrial World.
World Scientific. Early history". Silicon: Evolution and Future of a Technology. Fundamental Aspects of Silicon Oxidation. National Inventors Hall of Fame.
Archived from the original on September 19, Retrieved June 21, Archived from the original on October 27, Retrieved June 27, Archived from the original on September 2, Silicon Valley: Year Renaissance.
The fusion of 28 Si with alpha particles by photodisintegration rearrangement in stars is known as the silicon-burning process ; it is the last stage of stellar nucleosynthesis before the rapid collapse and violent explosion of the star in question in a type II supernova.
The known isotopes of silicon range in mass number from 22 to Silicon can enter the oceans through groundwater and riverine transport.
Large fluxes of groundwater input have an isotopic composition which is distinct from riverine silicon inputs.
Isotopic variations in groundwater and riverine transports contribute to variations in oceanic 30 Si values.
Currently, there are substantial differences in the isotopic values of deep water in the world's ocean basins. Between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, there is a deep water 30 Si gradient of greater than 0.
Crystalline bulk silicon is rather inert, but becomes more reactive at high temperatures. Like its neighbour aluminium, silicon forms a thin, continuous surface layer of silicon dioxide SiO 2 that protects the metal from oxidation.
Silicon does not react with most aqueous acids, but is oxidised and fluorinated by a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid ; it readily dissolves in hot aqueous alkali to form silicates.
At high temperatures, silicon also reacts with alkyl halides ; this reaction may be catalysed by copper to directly synthesise organosilicon chlorides as precursors to silicone polymers.
Upon melting, silicon becomes extremely reactive, alloying with most metals to form silicides , and reducing most metal oxides because the heat of formation of silicon dioxide is so large.
As a result, containers for liquid silicon must be made of refractory , unreactive materials such as zirconium dioxide or group 4, 5, and 6 borides.
Tetrahedral coordination is a major structural motif in silicon chemistry just as it is for carbon chemistry. However, the 3p subshell is rather more diffuse than the 2p subshell and does not hybridise so well with the 3s subshell.
As a result, the chemistry of silicon and its heavier congeners shows significant differences from that of carbon,  and thus octahedral coordination is also significant.
Silicon already shows some incipient metallic behavior, particularly in the behavior of its oxide compounds and its reaction with acids as well as bases though this takes some effort , and is hence often referred to as a metalloid rather than a nonmetal.
Silicon shows clear differences from carbon. For example, organic chemistry has very few analogies with silicon chemistry, while silicate minerals have a structural complexity unseen in oxocarbons.
Additionally, the lower Ge—O bond strength compared to the Si—O bond strength results in the absence of "germanone" polymers that would be analogous to silicone polymers.
Many metal silicides are known, most of which have formulae that cannot be explained through simple appeals to valence : their bonding ranges from metallic to ionic and covalent.
They are structurally more similar to the borides than the carbides , in keeping with the diagonal relationship between boron and silicon, although the larger size of silicon than boron means that exact structural analogies are few and far between.
The heats of formation of the silicides are usually similar to those of the borides and carbides of the same elements, but they usually melt at lower temperatures.
Except for copper , the metals in groups 11—15 do not form silicides. Instead, most form eutectic mixtures , although the heaviest post-transition metals mercury , thallium , lead , and bismuth are completely immiscible with liquid silicon.
Usually, silicides are prepared by direct reaction of the elements. For example, the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals react with silicon or silicon oxide to give silicides.
Nevertheless, even with these highly electropositive elements true silicon anions are not obtainable, and most of these compounds are semiconductors.
Cu 5 Si ; with increasing silicon content, catenation increases, resulting in isolated clusters of two e. U 3 Si 2 or four silicon atoms e.
CaSi , layers e. CaSi 2 , or three-dimensional networks of silicon atoms spanning space e. The silicides of the group 1 and 2 metals usually are more reactive than the transition metal silicides.
The latter usually do not react with aqueous reagents, except for hydrofluoric acid ; however, they do react with much more aggressive reagents such as liquid potassium hydroxide , or gaseous fluorine or chlorine when red-hot.
The pre-transition metal silicides instead readily react with water and aqueous acids, usually producing hydrogen or silanes: . Products often vary with the stoichiometry of the silicide reactant.
For example, Ca 2 Si is polar and non-conducting and has the anti-PbCl 2 structure with single isolated silicon atoms, and reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide , hydrated silicon dioxide, and hydrogen gas.
CaSi with its zigzag chains of silicon atoms instead reacts to give silanes and polymeric SiH 2 , while CaSi 2 with its puckered layers of silicon atoms does not react with water, but will react with dilute hydrochloric acid: the product is a yellow polymeric solid with stoichiometry Si 2 H 2 O.
Speculation on silicon hydride chemistry started in the s, contemporary with the development of synthetic organic chemistry. Silane itself, as well as trichlorosilane , were first synthesised by Friedrich Wöhler and Heinrich Buff in by reacting aluminium—silicon alloys with hydrochloric acid , and characterised as SiH 4 and SiHCl 3 by Charles Friedel and Albert Ladenburg in Disilane Si 2 H 6 followed in , when it was first made by Henri Moissan and Samuel Smiles by the protonolysis of magnesium silicides.
Further investigation had to wait until because of the great reactivity and thermal instability of the silanes; it was then that Alfred Stock began to study silicon hydrides in earnest with new greaseless vacuum techniques, as they were found as contaminants of his focus, the boron hydrides.
The names silanes and boranes are his, based on analogy with the alkanes. Direct reaction of HX or RX with silicon, possibly with a catalyst such as copper, is also a viable method of producing substituted silanes.
They are all strong reducing agents. The first two, silane and disilane, are colourless gases; the heavier members of the series are volatile liquids.
All silanes are very reactive and catch fire or explode spontaneously in air. They become less thermally stable with room temperature, so that only silane is indefinitely stable at room temperature, although disilane does not decompose very quickly only 2.
They are much more reactive than the corresponding alkanes, because of the larger radius of silicon compared to carbon facilitating nucleophilic attack at the silicon, the greater polarity of the Si—H bond compared to the C—H bond, and the ability of silicon to expand its octet and hence form adducts and lower the reaction's activation energy.
Silane pyrolysis gives polymeric species and finally elemental silicon and hydrogen; indeed ultrapure silicon is commercially produced by the pyrolysis of silane.
While pure silanes do not react with pure water or dilute acids, traces of alkali catalyse immediate hydrolysis to hydrated silicon dioxide.
If the reaction is carried out in methanol , controlled solvolysis results in the products SiH 2 OMe 2 , SiH OMe 3 , and Si OMe 4.
The Si—H bond also adds to alkenes , a reaction which proceeds slowly and speeds up with increasing substitution of the silane involved.
The monohalosilanes may be formed by reacting silane with the appropriate hydrogen halide with an Al 2 X 6 catalyst, or by reacting silane with a solid silver halide in a heated flow reactor: .
Silicon and silicon carbide readily react with all four stable halogens, forming the colourless, reactive, and volatile silicon tetrahalides. The melting and boiling points of these species usually rise with increasing atomic weight, though there are many exceptions: for example, the melting and boiling points drop as one passes from SiFBr 3 through SiFClBr 2 to SiFCl 2 Br.
While catenation in carbon compounds is maximised in the hydrogen compounds rather than the halides, the opposite is true for silicon, so that the halopolysilanes are known up to at least Si 14 F 30 , Si 6 Cl 14 , and Si 4 Br These halopolysilanes may be produced by comproportionation of silicon tetrahalides with elemental silicon, or by condensation of lighter halopolysilanes trimethylammonium being a useful catalyst for this reaction.
Silicon dioxide SiO 2 , also known as silica, is one of the best-studied compounds, second only to water. It also is known to occur in a pure form as rock crystal ; impure forms are known as rose quartz , smoky quartz , morion , amethyst , and citrine.
Some poorly crystalline forms of quartz are also known, such as chalcedony , chrysoprase , carnelian , agate , onyx , jasper , heliotrope , and flint.
Other modifications of silicon dioxide are known in some other minerals such as tridymite and cristobalite , as well as the much less common coesite and stishovite.
Biologically generated forms are also known as kieselguhr and diatomaceous earth. Vitreous silicon dioxide is known as tektites , and obsidian , and rarely as lechatelierite.
Some synthetic forms are known as keatite and W-silica. Opals are composed of complicated crystalline aggregates of partially hydrated silicon dioxide.
Other high-pressure forms of silica are known, such as coesite and stishovite: these are known in nature, formed under the shock pressure of a meteorite impact and then rapidly quenched to preserve the crystal structure.
Similar melting and cooling of silica occurs following lightning strikes, forming glassy lechatelierite.
Silica is rather inert chemically. It is not attacked by any acids other than hydrofluoric acid. However, it slowly dissolves in hot concentrated alkalis, and does so rather quickly in fused metal hydroxides or carbonates, to give metal silicates.
Silica nevertheless reacts with many metal and metalloid oxides to form a wide variety of compounds important in the glass and ceramic industries above all, but also have many other uses: for example, sodium silicate is often used in detergents due to its buffering , saponifying , and emulsifying properties.
Increasing water concentration results in the formation of hydrated silica gels and colloidal silica dispersions.
Hence, although some simple silicic acids have been identified in dilute solutions, such as orthosilicic acid Si OH 4 and metasilicic acid SiO OH 2 , none of these are likely to exist in the solid state.
Silicate and aluminosilicate minerals have many different structures and varying stoichiometry, but they may be classified following some general principles.
The lattice of oxygen atoms that results is usually close-packed, or close to it, with the charge being balanced by other cations in various different polyhedral sites according to size.
Be 2 SiO 4 phenacite is unusual as both Be II and Si IV occupy tetrahedral four-coordinated sites; the other divalent cations instead occupy six-coordinated octahedral sites and often isomorphously replace each other as in olivine , Mg,Fe,Mn 2 SiO 4.
Also significant are the garnets , [M II 3 M III 2 SiO 4 3 ], in which the divalent cations e. Ca, Mg, Fe are eight-coordinated and the trivalent ones are six-coordinated e.
Al, Cr, Fe. Regular coordination is not always present: for example, it is not found in Ca 2 SiO 4 , which mixes six- and eight-coordinate sites for Ca II.
Many differences arise due to the differing repeat distances of conformation across the line of tetrahedra. A repeat distance of two is most common, as in most pyroxene minerals, but repeat distances of one, three, four, five, six, seven, nine, and twelve are also known.
These chains may then link across each other to form double chains and ribbons, as in the asbestos minerals, involving repeated chains of cyclic tetrahedron rings.
Layer silicates, such as the clay minerals and the micas , are very common, and often are formed by horizontal cross-linking of metasilicate chains or planar condensation of smaller units.
Three-dimensional framework aluminosilicates are structurally very complex; they may be conceived of as starting from the SiO 2 structure, but having replaced up to one-half of the Si IV atoms with Al III , they require more cations to be included in the structure to balance charge.
Examples include feldspars the most abundant minerals on the Earth , zeolites , and ultramarines. Many feldspars can be thought of as forming part of the ternary system NaAlSi 3 O 8 —KAlSi 3 O 8 —CaAl 2 Si 2 O 8.
Zeolites have many polyhedral cavities in their frameworks truncated cuboctahedra being most common, but other polyhedra also are known as zeolite cavities , allowing them to include loosely bound molecules such as water in their structure.
However, SiS 2 lacks the variety of structures of SiO 2 , and quickly hydrolyses to silica and hydrogen sulfide. It is also ammonolysed quickly and completely by liquid ammonia as follows to form an imide : .
It reacts with the sulfides of sodium, magnesium, aluminium, and iron to form metal thiosilicates : reaction with ethanol results in tetraethylsilicate Si OEt 4 and hydrogen sulfide.
Ethylsilicate is useful as its controlled hydrolysis produces adhesive or film-like forms of silica. Reacting silyl halides with ammonia or alkylammonia derivatives in the gaseous phase or in ethanolic solution produces various volatile silylamides, which are silicon analogues of the amines : .
Many such compounds have been prepared, the only known restriction being that the nitrogen is always tertiary, and species containing the SiH—NH group are unstable at room temperature.
Similarly, trisilylamines are weaker as ligands than their carbon analogues, the tertiary amines , although substitution of some SiH 3 groups by CH 3 groups mitigates this weakness.
For example, N SiH 3 3 does not form an adduct with BH 3 at all, while MeN SiH 3 2 and Me 2 NSiH 3 form adducts at low temperatures that decompose upon warming.
Silicon carbide SiC was first made by Edward Goodrich Acheson in , who named it carborundum to reference its intermediate hardness and abrasive power between diamond an allotrope of carbon and corundum aluminium oxide.
He soon founded a company to manufacture it, and today about one million tonnes are produced each year. They are variations of the same chemical compound that are identical in two dimensions and differ in the third.
Thus they can be viewed as layers stacked in a certain sequence. It is resistant to most aqueous acids, phosphoric acid being an exception.
It is mostly used as an abrasive and a refractory material, as it is chemically stable and very strong, and it fractures to form a very sharp cutting edge.
It is also useful as an intrinsic semiconductor, as well as an extrinsic semiconductor upon being doped. Because the Si—C bond is close in strength to the C—C bond, organosilicon compounds tend to be markedly thermally and chemically stable.
Furthermore, since carbon and silicon are chemical congeners, organosilicon chemistry shows some significant similarities with carbon chemistry, for example in the propensity of such compounds for catenation and forming multiple bonds.
Thus the Si—F bond is significantly stronger than even the C—F bond and is one of the strongest single bonds, while the Si—H bond is much weaker than the C—H bond and is readily broken.
Furthermore, the ability of silicon to expand its octet is not shared by carbon, and hence some organosilicon reactions have no organic analogues.
For example, nucleophilic attack on silicon does not proceed by the S N 2 or S N 1 processes, but instead goes through a negatively charged true pentacoordinate intermediate and appears like a substitution at a hindered tertiary atom.
Nevertheless, despite these differences, the mechanism is still often called "S N 2 at silicon" for simplicity.
One of the most useful silicon-containing groups is trimethylsilyl , Me 3 Si—. The Si—C bond connecting it to the rest of the molecule is reasonably strong, allowing it to remain while the rest of the molecule undergoes reactions, but is not so strong that it cannot be removed specifically when needed, for example by the fluoride ion, which is a very weak nucleophile for carbon compounds but a very strong one for organosilicon compounds.
It may be compared to acidic protons ; while trisilylmethyl is removed by hard nucleophiles instead of bases, both removals usually promote elimination.
As a general rule, while saturated carbon is best attacked by nucleophiles that are neutral compounds, those based on nonmetals far down on the periodic table e.
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