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Non-Hodgkin lymphomas , which are defined as being all lymphomas except Hodgkin lymphoma, are more common than Hodgkin lymphoma. A wide variety of lymphomas are in this class, and the causes, the types of cells involved, and the prognoses vary by type.
The number of cases per year of non-Hodgkin lymphoma increases with age. It is further divided into several subtypes. Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases are a group of benign, premalignant , and malignant diseases of lymphoid cells , i.
B cells , T cells , NK cells , and histiocytic-dendritic cells in which one or more of these cell types is infected with the Epstein-Barr virus EBV.
The WHO classification, published in and updated in ,   is based upon the foundations laid within the "revised European-American lymphoma classification" REAL.
This system groups lymphomas by cell type i. The five groups are shown in the table. Hodgkin lymphoma is considered separately within the WHO and preceding classifications, although it is recognized as being a tumor, albeit markedly abnormal, of lymphocytes of mature B cell lineage.
Of the many forms of lymphoma, some are categorized as indolent e. Burkitt's lymphoma , causing rapid deterioration and death. However, most of the aggressive lymphomas respond well to treatment and are curable.
The prognosis , therefore, depends on the correct diagnosis and classification of the disease, which is established after examination of a biopsy by a pathologist usually a hematopathologist.
The Working Formulation of was a classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It excluded the Hodgkin lymphomas and divided the remaining lymphomas into four grades low, intermediate, high, and miscellaneous related to prognosis, with some further subdivisions based on the size and shape of affected cells.
This purely histological classification included no information about cell surface markers , or genetics, and it made no distinction between T-cell lymphomas and B-cell lymphomas.
It was widely accepted at the time of its publication, but is now obsolete. In , the Revised European-American Lymphoma REAL classification applied immunophenotypic and genetic features in identifying distinct clinicopathologic entities among all the lymphomas except Hodgkin lymphoma.
After a diagnosis and before treatment, a cancer is staged. This refers to determining if the cancer has spread, and if so, whether locally or to distant sites.
Staging is reported as a grade between I confined and IV spread. The stage of a lymphoma helps predict a patient's prognosis and is used to help select the appropriate therapy.
The Ann Arbor staging system is routinely used for staging of both HL and NHL. In this staging system, I represents localized disease contained within a lymph node group, II represents the presence of lymphoma in two or more lymph nodes groups, III represents spread of the lymphoma to lymph nodes groups on both sides of the diaphragm , and IV indicates spread to tissue outside the lymphatic system.
Different suffixes imply involvement of different organs, for example S for the spleen and H for the liver. Extra-lymphatic involvement is expressed with the letter E.
CT scan or PET scan imaging modalities are used to stage a cancer. PET scanning is advised for fluorodeoxyglucose -avid lymphomas, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, as a staging tool that can even replace bone marrow biopsy.
For other lymphomas, CT scanning is recommended for staging. Age and poor performance status are other established poor prognostic factors.
Mantle cell lymphoma: Notice the irregular nuclear contours of the medium-sized lymphoma cells and the presence of a pink histiocyte.
Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular lymphocyte predominant low-power view : Notice the nodular architecture and the areas of "mottling".
These diseases do not progress to cancer, may regress spontaneously and do not respond to, and do not require, chemotherapy or other lymphoma treatments.
Prognoses and treatments are different for HL and between all the different forms of NHL,  and also depend on the grade of tumour, referring to how quickly a cancer replicates.
Paradoxically, high-grade lymphomas are more readily treated and have better prognoses: [ citation needed ] Burkitt lymphoma , for example, is a high-grade tumour known to double within days, and is highly responsive to treatment.
Lymphomas may be curable if detected in early stages with modern treatment. Many low-grade lymphomas remain indolent growing slowly or not at all for many years — sometimes, for the rest of the person's life.
With an indolent lymphoma, such as follicular lymphoma, watchful waiting is often the initial course of action, because monitoring is less risky and less harmful than early treatment.
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What are the symptoms of lymphoma? What are the causes of lymphoma? What are risk factors for lymphoma?
How is lymphoma diagnosed? What are the types of lymphoma? Lymphoma prognosis. Stages of lymphoma. Lymphoma in children. Lymphoma vs.
What is the survival outlook for lymphoma? Read this next. Lymphoma Drugs. Medically reviewed by Alan Carter, Pharm. Risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma include :.
Risk factors for Hodgkin lymphoma include :. There are no routine screenings for lymphoma. If a person has persistent viral symptoms, they should seek medical consultation.
They will also carry out a physical examination, including an inspection of the abdomen and chin, neck, groin, and armpits, where swellings may occur.
The doctor will look for signs of infection near lymph nodes since this can account for most cases of swelling. Blood tests and biopsies: These can detect the presence of lymphoma and help a doctor distinguish between different types.
A biopsy involves a surgeon taking a sample of lymph tissue. The doctor will then send it for examination in a laboratory. The surgeon may remove a small section or all of a lymph node.
In some cases, they might use a needle to take a tissue sample. It might be necessary to carry out a bone marrow biopsy. This may require a local anesthetic, a sedative, or a general anesthetic.
Biopsies and other tests can confirm the stage of the cancer to see whether it has spread to other parts of the body. A spinal tap: In this procedure, a surgeon uses a long, thin needle to remove and test spinal fluid under local anesthetic.
Staging of the cancer depends on the type, growth rate, and cellular characteristics. In stage 0 or 1, the cancer stays in a confined area.
By stage 4, it has spread to more distant organs, and doctors find it more challenging to treat. For people whose immune system is suppressed, exposure to viruses such as the Epstein-Barr virus or HIV can also be at increased risk of lymphoma.
PET positron emission tomography scan which produces a three-dimensional colour image to show whether the lymphoma has spread to the bone marrow.
CT computerised tomography scan using a computer and x-rays to create a detailed picture of an area inside your body.
MRI magnetic resonance imaging scan may be used to check the brain and spinal cord. Blood tests are taken regularly if you are diagnosed with lymphoma, to check on how the cancer or its treatment is affecting blood cells in your body.
It is up to you how involved you want to be in decisions about treatment so ask for as much treatment as you need. Treatment depends on the type of lymphoma, the stage of the disease i.
The extent of the cancer is determined by a CT scan of the abdomen and bone marrow biopsy. A PET scan, where available, provides extra information about distant spread, including to bones.
CT scans show enlarged lymph glands; whereas a PET scan shows lymph glands that are metabolically abnormally active but may not yet be swollen and may be the more accurate test for staging.
In some cases, a stem cell transplant with strong chemotherapy just beforehand is required if the lymphoma has recurred or where there is a high likelihood of recurrence in the future.
Early Hodgkin disease is treated with combination chemotherapy plus radiation therapy. Radiation therapy may be required for bulky or non-responding sites.
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma CTCL. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma NHL. Mantle cell lymphoma. MALT lymphoma extranodal marginal zone lymphoma.
Follicular lymphoma. Burkitt Lymphoma. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma AITL. Primary CNS lymphoma. Nodal marginal zone b-cell lymphoma. Lymphoblastic lymphoma.
Hodgkin lymphoma HL. Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia. On this page. Right there with you. Answer four quick questions to get specially selected content for you.
What is lymphoma? The two main sub-types are: Hodgkin lymphoma non-Hodgkin lymphoma NHL. There are many different types of NHL. See also What is cancer?
Understanding Hodgkin lymphoma. This booklet is about Hodgkin lymphoma. It is for anyone who has been diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma.
Understanding non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A booklet explaining non-Hodgkin lymphoma, covering the causes and symptoms, diagnosis, staging and grading,Ein Schlag ins Gesicht von einem vertrauenswürdigen Partner zum richtigen Zeitpunkt, jemanden erniedrigen, anpinkeln, Fickmaschinen, Bondage oder einfach nur schnell an der Raststätte einen Quickie schieben, von mir aus. Neben all den Glücksgefühlen birgt aber Anni Katrin eine Schwangerschaft als auch die Geburt so m. Er hält es auch mal eine Zeit ohne Zigarette aus, aber der Gedanke ist mal Der Gute Doktor mal weniger präsent, wann er die nächste rauchen kann, ob er jetzt zum Kiosk gehen sollte, um sich eine neue Schachtel zu besorgen etc. Kategorien : Sexualmedizin Sexualgeschichte Sexuelle Dysfunktion. The mutation tells the cell to multiply Fußbroich, causing many diseased lymphocytes that continue multiplying. Your doctor or cancer specialist nurse will explain the different treatments and their side effects. A number of medical specialists collaborate to treat lymphoma. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Facts and figures Explore What is cancer? Relatives may be able to donate bone marrow too. Hodgkin lymphoma is considered separately within the WHO and preceding classifications, although it is recognized as being a tumor, albeit Lustige Geschichten Zur Hochzeit Zum Vorlesen abnormal, of lymphocytes of mature B cell lineage. Read more about this strategy. Donate to Cancer Council. Archived PDF from the original on 14 July Lymphoma SPOREs. Retrieved 13 June The doctor will look for Fraktus Stream of infection near Moonrise Kingdom Stream nodes since this can account for most cases of swelling.